Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

      The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia suffered extensive environmental damages as a result of the invasion and occupation of Kuwait by Iraq’s forces in 1990-1991 and the subsequent liberation of the country during the 1991 Gulf War. Following the incursion by Iraq into Kuwait, over 600,000 allied forces gathered in the northern desert region of Saudi Arabia under Operation Desert Storm. Both prior to and during the allied offensive, major environmental impacts resulted from the construction of troop encampments, military fortifications and roadways, military activities and the movement of these troops throughout the area. Furthermore, during this time 11 million barrels of crude oil was intentionally released by Iraqi forces from an oil pipeline that extended into the Gulf and from several moored oil tankers which at times formed a slick covering over 200 km² and represents the largest marine oil spill in history. The vast majority of this spill came ashore on the coastline of Saudi Arabia impacting over 800 km of shoreline from the Kuwait border to Abu Ali Island and Jubail Industrial City.

     The Commission awarded approximately US$1 billion to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to undertake large scale environmental remediation and restoration activities. Details of the projects being undertaken by Saudi Arabia with these award funds are set out on a per claim basis below.

Claim 5000451 - Remediation of Damages to Coastal Resources (US$463,319,284)

     The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was awarded US$463,319,284 for damages to the coastal environment as a result of the release of oil into the Persian Gulf; and contaminants released from oil wells fires.

Claim 5000455 - Remediation of Terrestrial Resources (US$618,974,433)

     The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was awarded US$618,974,433 due to ecological damage to vegetation and soils from military activities.

Claim 5000463 - Intertidal Shoreline Preserves (MPA’s) (US$46,113,706)

    To compensate for the loss of ecological services such as of food chains, amenities, and general productivity that resulted from oil contamination and environmental damage to the shoreline, Saudi Arabia was awarded US$46,113,706 for the establishment of two shoreline pr

Claim 5000465 - Remediation of Damage to Marine Resources (US$6,172,274)

     The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was awarded US$6,172,274 for damages to the marine environment caused by sunken oil, which impacted biotic communities in sub-tidal habitats.